Information from our Anatomy Workshops Section 1 & 2
Skeletal System: The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones, as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, and calcium storage.

Muscular System: The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles (such as the cardiac muscle) can be completely autonomous.

Muscle -> Fascicle -> Muscle Fiber -> Myofibril -> myocytes (tubular muscle cells) – composed of proteins (actin/myosin)

  • Not an all or nothing contraction

Musculoskeletal System: Together they are responsible for movement of the human body.

Anatomical Position

Planes of Motion

  1. Sagittal
  2. Frontal
  3. Transverse

Directional Terms

  1. Anterior/Posterior
  2. Proximal/Distal
  3. Inferior/Superior

Joint Actions

  1. Flexion /Extension
  2. Adduction/Abduction
  3. Internal/External Rotation
  4. Lateral Flexion
  5. Rotation
  6. Circumduction
  7. Retraction/Protraction
  8. Upward/downward
  9. Elevation/depression
  10. Horizontal Adduction/Abduction
  11. Pronation/Supination
  12. Inversion/Eversion
  13. Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion

See PDF of Origins/insertions & prime mover action

  1. Fibrosis – skull and syndesmosis joints – forearm, lower leg
  2. Cartilaginous – ribs, discs
  3. Synovial Joints
    • Joint Capsule
    • Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid
    • Smooth cartilage on ends of bones
    • Thick fibrous, ligaments that surround

Types of Bones

  1. Long – femur, humerus
  2. Short – “cube shaped”
  3. Flat – Scapula, sterum
  4. Irregular – zygomatic, atlas, axis

Types of Joints

  1. Ball and Socket – shoulder/hip (greatest mobility/decreased stability
  2. Hinge
  3. Condyloid
  4. Saddle
  5. Gliding
  6. Pivot


  1. Bone to bone (hard)
  2. Spasm (firm)
  3. Capsular feel (soft)
  4. Tissue approximation (soft)
  5. Empty feel (generally due to pain, don’t get to end range

Open vs Closed Pack Positions

  1. See PDF
Here is the wrist exercises video Matt discussed during our workshop.